Share |

Mexico City: Back From the Brink?

  • warning: Creating default object from empty value in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/openpublish_core/theme_helpers/ on line 48.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 879.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field_user::init() should be compatible with views_handler_field::init(&$view, $options) in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/modules/user/ on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::init() should be compatible with views_handler::init(&$view, $options) in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/ on line 0.

Growing up in what by the 1980s was the biggest metropolis in the world, my friends and I thought we were very tough. Taking to heart the naïve view that “things that do not kill you make you stronger,” there was plenty to choose from in Mexico City. To name but a few, the city had the worst quality air anywhere, and we still managed to play soccer, basketball and water polo at 7,300 feet above sea level without collapsing. We learned fortitude and patience from the three-plus hours lost in traffic as we fulfilled our daily obligations. We developed good negotiating skills, given that by 18 or 19 years of age we each had been mugged at knife- or gunpoint at least a couple times without suffering major consequences. Of course, our smugness was baseless because we were among the lucky minority to have been raised in middle-class or well-to-do households, and therefore our exposure to the dangers and hazards of the city were minuscule in relative terms.

Still, by the end of the 1980s, forecasts by urban planners, demographers, environmental scientists and criminologists were not far from equating the city's future with the dystopia depicted in the science fiction film Blade Runner if serious remedial policies were not implemented. The movie, set in Los Angeles in 2019, portrays millions of alienated individuals, going about their business in haste and fear, engulfed by perpetual fog and smog alongside acid rain, against the permanent sound of sirens and blinding red and yellow lights of emergency services vehicles responding to unstoppable criminal activity. Fast-forward one-quarter of a century: Mexico City at the start of the 2010s has confounded the more pessimistic predictions and although facing many serious, large-scale challenges seems to have come back from the brink. 

No longer the world’s largest metropolis (it is now among the top 10 by population, with around 21 million inhabitants), the high plateau where Mexico City is located nonetheless has the greatest population density of the Western Hemisphere’s three largest megalopolises (the others are São Paulo and New York City). The city, whose official name is Distrito ­Federal, is the capital of the country, and despite the growth and diversification of other cities—such as Guadalajara, León, Monterrey, Puebla and Querétaro—it remains the neuralgic center of political, economic and cultural life in Mexico. The metropolitan area produces close to one-third of the country’s annual gross domestic product at around $400 billion and is home to more than 20 percent of the country’s total population (around 110 million to 115 million in 2012).

Unsurprisingly, given the city's centrality in the national conversation­ and the vast amount of resources it consumes and goods and services it produces, Mexico City and its inhabitants have traditionally elicited hostile reactions from Mexicans elsewhere. For example, the pejorative reference to a native of Mexico City is chilango. While the etymology remains deeply contested, its usage is not as in car stickers for non-Mexico City residents that read, “Haz patria, mata a un chilango” (“Nurture the motherland, kill someone from the capital”). Self-aware and a bit embarrassed, chilangos have replied to the challenges with a variety of measures that have improved living conditions for many of the city's residents, but reality remains characterized by abysmal differences for different population groups.

One City, Three Universes

Román Gómez, Mexico-based senior consultant for the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (U.N.-Habitat), describes everyday life in the city as occurring in three parallel universes. Around 5 percent of the population are members of rich households. Their daily routine is relatively functional, although it unfolds in small bubbles kept in place by heavy spending on private security—in some cases, the idea of belonging to a gated community implies three or four checkpoints to reach your destination—and they still have to suffer general problems such as few secure, open green spaces; an intermittent supply of potable water; and long battles with moving around, given chronic vehicular congestion on the roads.

Another 15 to 20 percent of the population is made up of middle-class households that, in addition to experiencing the common transportation and environmental problems, are at higher risk of suffering from criminal and violent acts. Kidnapping, an industry that flourished in the mid-1990s after Mexico's financial and economic implosion in 1994Ð95, evolved from a specialized activity carried out by ex-police and ex-military who targeted the very rich to one where the lower to upper middle classes are the main source of revenue.

In turn, life for a staggering 75 to 80 percent of the metropolitan population is characterized by features associated with traditional urban poverty. Most live in consolidated squatter settlements and emerging peri-urban areas “misery belts” surrounding the city. Commuting time for individuals who work in the city as office support and cleaning personnel, as house servants, and in the informal car parking/car watching/street cleaning industry can be three to five hours. A majority get bad-quality water intermittently from the network and via pipe trucks that show up two or three times a week and sometimes sell at 10 times the going price. Sewer systems are close to nonexistent, and waste most frequently ends up in ravines, with disastrous pollution impact.

Regarding crime and violence, many of these communities are beyond the reach of the state's authority. They are run and fleeced by local criminal groups who set their rules based on theft, extortion and gender-based violence (feminicides remain an epidemic not only in northern cities such as Ciudad Ju‡rez but also in poor neighborhoods of Mexico City's metropolitan area). In some big shantytowns, such as Ciudad Nezahualc—yotl, Ecatepec  and Iztapalapa, the police dare not show their faces when criminal groups make it explicit that they are settling accounts.

As a consequence of such bitterly different realities, the average perspective of Mexico City dwellers regarding their quality of life, their challenges and their hopes is close to meaningless. Yet a majority of the city's very diverse population agrees that some issues have been characterized by improvements in the last one and a half decades.

Progressive Politics and Business Pragmatism

Up until 1997, the Mexico City government was appointed by the country’s president. That year the city had its first democratic elections to choose its authorities. Since then, the left-wing party Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD) has won four successive elections and ruled uninterrupted. The Federal District and a few of the 31 states that make up Mexico’s federal system are in the minority that have enjoyed continuous “unified government”—that is, the same party controls the executive and legislative branches. While the city boasts a healthy plural spirit in terms of citizen beliefs, values and attitudes, a majority have backed progressive policies that have been implemented by the PRD, such as abortion, same-sex marriage and a limited use of euthanasia. Overall, Mexico remains a socially conservative society, and therefore many educated youngsters with liberal views continue to leave the choking conservative environment of provincial cities to join a cauldron of permissive, liberal thinking and practice in the capital.

Likewise, breaking with the stereotype of Latin American leftists as inveterate nationalists who are antagonistic to private entrepreneurs and business in general, PRD governments in Mexico City have forged successful working relationships with tycoons such as ­Carlos Slim, the richest man in the world, to promote the construction of public works. Thus, a multibillion-dollar urban renewal project has contributed to redevelopment of the city’s downtown since the second half of the 1990s. Other projects include a large-scale effort to improve human flows in the city via the construction of new subway system routes, including Route 12; construction of the second tier of the Periférico, the main city’s ring road; and the growth of the other public transport infrastructure, the Metrobús. All these represent cases of successful and pragmatic private-public partnerships (PPPs). In the case of water, a PPP scheme involving, among others, Slim’s IDEAL construction company, is building the Atotonilco water treatment plant, considered the largest wastewater treatment project in the world at a cost of $790 million. As a result, some of the capital’s biggest tycoons have a reputation for respecting and being able to work with the left, in contrast with the conservative and hostile attitude that business communities in other big Mexican cities—Monterrey, in particular—have traditionally espoused.

Breathing Better Air

Another area where a majority of capital dwellers perceive a significant improvement vis-ˆ-vis the 1980s and '90s is air quality. This result is squarely thanks to bold policymaking and implementation. Starting in the late 1980s and early 1990s, successive federal gov-ernments pursued a policy of industrial de-concentration, whereby heavy industry particularly heavy polluters such as cement and paper plants were banned from the city. Likewise, the introduction of regular unleaded ­gasoline and high-octane gasoline in the 1990s, coupled with the expansion of subway lines, conversion of the public transport fleet to natural gas fuel and creation of suburban train lines, has improved air quality significantly in the Valley of Mexico.

Visitors today rightly continue to complain about the high levels of pollution in the city. However, any judgment is relative. I still remember, as a youth, the radio and TV reports, particularly during winter, recounting dozens of daily hospital admittances of babies and the elderly suffering from breathing complications caused by high levels of air pollution. And poor air quality caused suspension of classes, from primary to high school, sometimes for weeks at a time.

Had present-day visitors been in Mexico City in the late 1980s or early 1990s, they almost certainly would have reached a conclusion opposite the one held by my teenage friends and me: Chronically breathing high-pollution air does not strengthen you but rather weakens you, makes you ill and eventually kills you.

Defying the Doomsayers

Chilangos have neither ameliorated the abysmal differences in life opportunities and basic living conditions that separate the main socioeconomic groups nor made their city into one of the “top 10” places to live, according to lifestyle magazines for the well-heeled such as Monocle. Nonetheless, they have made improvements that have confounded doomsayers who thought the place would become unlivable.

Today, the megalopolis continues to capture the imagination of travelers the world over who consider Mexico City a “happening” place, a rich multicultural space of dramatic contrasts that regardless of their wanting to live in it or not leaves an indelible mark on visitors and dwellers alike.


The metropolitan area produces close to one-third of the country’s annual gross domestic product at around $400 billion and is home to more than 20 percent of the country’s total population (around 110 million to 115 million in 2012).
minecraft gratuit |
free psn codes

I want you to thank for your time of this wonderful read!!! I definately enjoy every little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff of your blog a must read blog!!!! teach your child to read in 100 easy lessons reviews

But recently HBO had made its way to go ahead with Pacquiao-Vargas. I know that most fans are happy with pacquiao vs vargas PPV. But still there is a risk of damaging income from other PPV, which is Kovalev-Ward PPV.

melbourne cup live stream The Melbourne Cup is scheduled for a 3pm start time, with an hour interval between race 6 and the Cup. During this period the 24 Melbourne Cup jockeys are introduced to the public and the national anthem is sung (though not always by the intended singer…Jessica Mauboy’s failure to perform was the subject of some controversy in 2015)

I concede, I have not been on this website page in quite a while... in any case it was another delight to see It is such an essential point and overlooked by such a variety of, even experts. experts. I thank you to help making individuals more mindful of conceivable issues. inbox blueprint

I as of late went over your site and have been perusing along. I thought I would leave my first remark. I don't recognize what to say with the exception of that I have delighted in perusing. Decent blog, I will continue going by this online journal all the time. fish tank

I am always searching online for articles that can help me. There is obviously a lot to know about this. I think you made some good points in Features also. Game Hacker

It was a decent post to be sure. I completely delighted in understanding it in my lunch time. Will definitely come and visit this blog all the more frequently. Much obliged for sharing. voyance par telephone gratuite

hi was just seeing if you minded a comment. i like your website and the thme you picked is super. I will be back.
4 zampe

The Patented extract from black pepper fruit significantly improves the gastrointestinal absorption and systemic utilization of nutrients that are supplemented.bioperine

The best place to buy Instagram followers and likes! Skip the long-term commitment of building your credibility and boost your Instagram today! best buy instagram

Brilliant article. You have done a pretty good job today. The information was fantastic to read. I am very impressed with this work from you. Thanks for doing this. Keep up the great work Cat5e Plenum

This is such an incredible asset, to the point that you are giving and you give it away for nothing. I cherish seeing blog that comprehend the quality. how to hack clash of clans

Tags related to period cup

Period cup dangers

Period cup where to buy

Period cup reviews

Period cup uk

Period cup comparison

best period cup

lunette menstrual cup

Period cup amazon

me luna

diva cup

moon cup

let me use a menstrual cup

Buy menstrual cup in store

Buy lunette

Buy instead softcup

Buy menstrual cup usa / australia

Buying menstrual cup uk

Buy a menstrual cup online

buy instead cup

Let me use a menstrual cup

Buy menstrual cup

Does Walmart Sell Menstrual Cups

Menstrual Cup Pros and Cons

Menstrual Cup Reviews

Where to buy a menstrual cup online?

Diva Cup Reviews Negative

Menstrual Cups Free Samples 2016

Menstrual Cup in Stores

Menstrual Cups review

Menstrual cup Walmart

Menstrual Cup Brands

Diva Cup Menstrual Cup

What Menstrual Cup is Right for Me

Diva Cup Reviews Negative

Who Sells Menstrual Cups

Luna cup reviews

Diva Cup Problems

Top Rated Menstrual Cup

Menstrual Cup Pros and Cons

Diva Cup Reviews

Blossom Menstrual Cup Review

Soft Cup

Menstrual cup comparison

Menstrual cup in Canada

Menstrual cup dangers

Findlay Menstrual Cup

Menstrual Cups

Michelle Period Cups

Lisa Menstrual Cups

Demi Period Cups

Demi Menstrual Cups

Elizabeth Menstrual Cups

Buy Menstrual Cup in USA

Do you need more customers to get attracted to your business? Do you need to reach more targeted clients? Then you need to consider the power of instagram, tapping from its milk to increase your business visibility. One of the fastest growing social media is Instagram. I believe you can now decipher what the call is –having a Instagram profile .But, creating just an Instagram profile will not help you get the best results. Therefore you need a “profile booster,” to help you leverage its power. What are the profile boosters? Here we offer different services. BUY INSTAGRAM FOLLOWERS

Ethnic marketing is still very new when you compare it to traditional marketing. It is an area where you need to understand the data and the people you are targeting before you just rush in with a marketing campaign.

bread machine reviews

On the off chance that more individuals that compose articles truly fretted about composing incredible substance like you, more perusers would be occupied with their works. Much obliged to you for thinking about your substance.fut coins

Wonderful blog! I found it while surfing around on Yahoo News. Do you have any suggestions on how to get listed in Yahoo News? I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem to get there! Appreciate it. Highest Paid Surveys

Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon. link building for seo

Very interesting article, I would like to know more about this subject.

Type of Guitars

Every one of the substance you said in post is too great and can be extremely helpful. I will remember it, much obliged for sharing the data continue upgrading, looking forward for more posts.ThanksAnzzi accessories

Every one of the substance you said in post is too great and can be extremely helpful. I will remember it, much obliged for sharing the data continue upgrading, looking forward for more posts.Thanks meditubs

I was surfing net and fortunately came across this site and found very interesting stuff here. Its really fun to read. I enjoyed a lot. Thanks for sharing this wonderful information.
The EZ Battery Reconditioning

this is truly pleasant to read..informative post is great to read..thanks a considerable measure! The lowdown on installing water wall fountains

Thanks for a wonderful share. Your article has importations your hard work and experience you have got in This field. Brilliant reading .I love it. arti mimpi dihadang ular

a debt of gratitude is in order for the tips and information..i truly welcome it.. Whois Checker

Great info! I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have.

Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon.

So luck to come across your excellent blog. Your blog brings me a great deal of fun.. Good luck with the site. Litzy Remedy Tactics

I truly appreciated perusing this post, huge fan. Keep doing awesome me when would you be able to distribute more articles or where would I be able to peruse more on the subject? afro beauty düsseldorf

menstrual cup usa

best menstrual cup online

menstrual cups

how to choose a menstrual cup

menstrual cup online china

about menstrual cups

guide to menstrual cups

research menstrual cup

buy menstrual cup

Menstrual Cups Canada

Menstrual cup information

Menstrual Cup Buy

Top 10 menstrual cups

Menstrual Cup Amazon

menstrual cups languagebox

Menstrual cups - Green Your Period

Menstrual cup dangers

Menstrual Cup

Tags related to menstrual cup
moon cup uk

cups for period blood

what to expect when switching to menstrual cups

free menstrual cup sample 2015

blossom menstrual cup

lady cups
menstrual cups comparison
menstrual cups reviews
menstrual cups vs tampons
menstrual cups livejournal
menstruacní kalíšek luno
where to buy menstrual cups in stores
where can i buy menstrual cups in store
what is a diva cup and how does it work
menstrual cup reviews bad
lunette cup review
menstrual cup reviews 2015
menstrual cup reviews comparison
female cup menstrual cup reviews
menstrual cup how to use
menstrual cramps
Menstrual cup reviews

Wear - menstrual cups and reusable cloth pads

Menstrual Cup Cups Mooncup Meluna Lunette Instead Diva

Menstrual Cup | Period Cup | Sizes A and B - Boots

The Best Menstrual Cups (Period Cups) - Reviews & Comparison UK

mooncups uk

does the diva cup work

Where to buy menstrual cups

What Menstrual Cup Is Right For You?

Where to Buy Menstrual Cups in the USA

Buy Menstrual Cups and accessories online

Where can you buy menstrual cups?

How to Buy a Menstrual Cup: 6 Steps (with Pictures)

7 Best Menstrual Cups (Period Cups) - Reviews & Comparison

Best menstrual cup for you: The definitive guide

Menstrual Cups Canada- Where to Buy

How To Use A Menstrual Cup

Menstrual cups - a UK buying guide

what is a menstruation cup
menstrual cup comparison
best menstrual cup
lunette menstrual cup
menstrual cups comparison
menstrual cups reviews
period cup
walmart menstrual cups
are menstrual cups safe
menstrual cups walgreens
how to use menstrual cups
menstrual cups vs tampons
buy menstrual cups online
best place to buy menstrual cups
silicone menstrual cup
period cups
menstrual cycle cup
menstrual cup information
menstruation cup
Menstrual cups uk

Much obliged to you so much Love your site.. casino

Excellent work done by you once again here. This is just the reason why I've always liked your work. You have amazing writing skills and you display them in every article. Keep it going check out!

Keep it up!! You have done the nice job having provided the latest information.
Email Tools

It was wondering if I could use this write-up on my other website, I will link it back to your website though.Great Thanks. advance cash services

I am happy to find your distinguished way of writing the post. Now you make it easy for me to understand and implement the concept. Thank you for the post. home and auto insurance comparison

I appreciate this article for the all around examined substance and incredible wording. I got so included in this material that I couldn't quit perusing. I am inspired with your work and ability. Much thanks to you to such an extent best home warranties

Very useful post. This is my first time i visit here. I found so many interesting stuff in your blog especially its discussion. Really its great article. Keep it up. chat room for website

Much obliged for the online journal stacked with such a variety of data. Ceasing by your site assisted me with getting what I was searching for updated blog post.

Thanks meant for sharing this type of satisfying opinion, written piece is fastidious, that’s why I’ve read it completely. Denver Window Cleaning

Your contents are moving ahead with days persevere guys.

The metropolitan area produces close to one-third of the country’s annual gross domestic product at around $400 billion and is home to more than 20 percent of the country’s total population (around 110 million to 115 million in 2012).minecraft gratuit |
free psn codes

I imagine that a debt of gratitude is in order for the valuabe data and bits of knowledge you have so given here. Winchester Pest Control Company

I haven’t any word to appreciate this post.....Really i am impressed from this post....the person who create this post it was a great human..thanks for shared this with us. signal booster

Every one of the substance you said in post is too great and can be extremely helpful. I will remember it, much obliged for sharing the data continue upgrading, looking forward for more posts.Thanks quotemyrig truck insurance

We believe that everyone deserves a chance at moving ahead with their lives. In our Mitigation services we strive to provide the Court with your history For our other court appointed services, our goal is to help provide the most up to date and relevant interventions.
vpn 购买

I definitely really liked every part of it and i also have you saved to fav to look at new information in your site. m27500

Much obliged to you for setting aside an ideal opportunity to distribute this data exceptionally helpful! Interior Décor