Share |

The Power of Cities: Mayors on the World Stage

  • warning: Creating default object from empty value in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/openpublish_core/theme_helpers/node-article.tpl.inc on line 48.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 879.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field_user::init() should be compatible with views_handler_field::init(&$view, $options) in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/modules/user/views_handler_field_user.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::init() should be compatible with views_handler::init(&$view, $options) in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc on line 0.

In the story of human history, the city quickly emerges as the main protagonist, leaving the countryside in a supporting role. As historian Samuel Kramer tells it in his widely read account, it was with the rise of the ancient city of Sumer that “history begins.” There, the development of an urban way of life accompanied by specialization and commercial activity added impetus to the development of many new technologies. The need for sophisticated record keeping, for example, went hand-in-hand with the revolutionary development of cuneiform script.

As the experience of Sumer showed 6,000 years ago, complex systems whether social structures, institutional mechanisms, or ways of exchanging goods and services evolved to support and manage the large and concentrated populations of cities. The very complexity of cities intrinsically makes them incubators of human creativity and natural champions of both connectivity and competitiveness. From the ancient nexus of city-states that made up Sumerian civilization and traded and fought with each other, to the great “world cities” of mercantilist Europe, to today’s network of “global cities” that jockey with each other for preeminence even as they exchange capital, human talent and new technology, cities have long made the world economy go ’round.

Yet, while cities generate 80 percent of global economic output, they are still lesser deities in the pantheon of world politics today. Nation-states, with their monopoly on the use of force, continue to dominate. There are a few exceptions in the world’s remaining sovereign city-states, including Singapore and the Principality of Monaco. Between the two, only Singapore has significant military capacity. Monaco has fewer than 300 military personnel. (Another city-state, Vatican City, lacks independent armed forces.) But historically, the greatest cities have conceded the provision of security to the territorially larger nation-state, even as national security has rested heavily on cities as strategically vital bases of economic and industrial activity.

In the context of the intensifying globalization now under way, however, the issues affecting human security have grown in both complexity and scope. Local problems can rapidly become global ones, while global challenges such as climate change, pandemics, international terrorism and economic crises are not only direct threats to local ways of life but may themselves emerge from within urban areas, places where more than half the world’s population now lives.

“Glocal” Challenges and Cities

The division of labor between cities and the nation-state in the international security arena is therefore becoming far less clear, or “glocalized,” to use the term popularized by sociologist Roland Robertson. Nation-states struggle to find the resources political, financial and technical to manage the myriad transnational threats from an increasingly unpredictable global environment.

In this context, nation-states have become more deliberate about using cities’ potential to serve as their agents in certain spheres of international activity. Cities may embrace, or even compete for, these roles as they may help promote their interests or serve the ambitions of their mayors. The Olympics offers one obvious example. Some national governments are eager for their major cities to win bids for the games to showcase national achievements and improve their international image. In 2008, China celebrated its renewed global influence, achieving what some in that country called “the dream of a century” with its spectacular success hosting the Beijing Olympic Games. In preparing for the Olympics, the Chinese government spared no expense. According to some estimates, costs topped $58 billion. China also used the Beijing games as a chance to send a message that it was not an environmentally irresponsible country intent on achieving rapid growth at all costs, but a nation striving for more balanced, “greener” development.

National governments may also routinely involve their cities directly in the foreign policy process. A report by the Netherlands Institute of International Relations (Clingendael) offers Amsterdam as an example, observing that national ministries regularly engage city leaders in discussions about national foreign policy goals. The city’s cabinet-appointed mayor often shares the international spotlight with the Dutch prime minister. In China, according to Benjamin Leffel, an authority on the role of cities in U.S.-China relations, the U.S.-China Initiative on City-Level Economic Cooperation has become a valued dimension of efforts through the bilateral Strategic & Economic Dialogue to diversify economic relations between the two countries.

Cities Taking Global Action

City governments may work with their national capitals on international issues. But
cities also have priorities linked to international and global issues that their national governments do not share. Because of this disconnect and because urban concerns that involve international or global issues may be more effectively addressed at the local level, cities are increasingly independent and proactive actors on the international stage. As New York City’s Mayor Michael Bloomberg put it in a recent piece in The Atlantic, “We’re the level of government closest to the majority of the world’s people. While nations talk, but too often drag their heels, cities act.”

Taking action sometimes involves directly challenging national policy. In an overview of cities as international actors, international relations expert R. James Ferguson recalls that two decades ago, many American cities used their sister-city relationships with cities and towns in Nicaragua to protest U.S. policy toward that country including promoting economic investment and direct medical aid. Even before that, at a time of intensifying anti-nuclear protests in the United States and abroad, 1,000 American cities had become involved in an effort to break down Cold War barriers and initiate ties with their counterparts in the Soviet Union. In another example, New York City resisted pressure from the U.S. Department of State and barred the participation of a major Swiss bank in a bond offering amid allegations the bank had received shipments of gold from countries under Nazi occupation.

Today, as national governments focus on other policy objectives, cities have initiated their own efforts to deal with many of the nontraditional threats to which they feel their security is vulnerable. For instance, as major greenhouse gas emitters that also suffer the effects of these emissions, cities have proceeded with their own action agendas on carbon reductions and climate change amid uncertainty about global collective action. In 2007, London, New York City and Tokyo all introduced ambitious emissions reductions efforts. More than 1,000 mayors have agreed through the U.S. Conference of Mayors Climate Protection Agreement to seek to match or exceed Kyoto Protocol targets, even though this protocol was never ratified by the United States.

As cities seek to make progress in areas of greatest concern to their mayors and constituents, they have formed or strengthened networks that enable them to cooperate internationally often independently of their national governments. The best known of these is Sister Cities International, now in its sixth decade of operation. Sister Cities helps formalize partnerships between its 600 member cities around the world, with some larger cities pairing themselves with dozens of cities across all world regions. Sibling ties have been used by cities to achieve a range of goals. Some German mayors have seen “twinning” arrangements with Turkish cities as helpful in reducing local social tensions involving immigrants from Turkey. Montreal extended a helping hand to the people in its sister city, Port-au-Prince, after the devastating 2010 earthquake in Haiti, committing technical and financial assistance to reconstruction. The Sister Cities network also helps even relatively small cities pursue big dreams. For example, Coral Cables, Fla., has developed sister-city relationships to help fulfill its founding vision of itself as a “cultural and economic gateway to Latin America.”

Other international city networks include the U.S.-based International City/County Management Association and, headquartered in Barcelona, the World Association of Major Metropolises and United Cities and Local Governments, among other international and regional inter-city groupings. Certainly, the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, which involves mayors from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to Austin, Texas, has contributed to cities’ success in making headway on carbon reductions. Auspices for urban cooperation are provided by the United Nations’ World Alliance of Cities Against Poverty and the World Health Organization’s Healthy Cities project.

Rock Star Mayors

Dynamic, can-do mayors are behind many of the international initiatives cities undertake and also represent them within international networks. New York City’s Bloomberg, dubbed the “mayor of mayors” by New York Magazine, has used his personal capital and media power to push a forward-looking agenda not only in New York but also around the world. Bloomberg has mentored mayors of other major world cities, such as London’s Boris Johnson, whose successful management of the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in his city won him an enthusiastic public following. Other mayors with international profiles include Ron Huldai of Tel Aviv, who has sustained socially progressive policies in his city against criticism from some national officials, and Toru Hashimoto of Osaka, Japan, whose youth, flamboyance and bold ideas on issues from education to nuclear policy have made him a media star.

Being in the global spotlight can have mixed results for mayors. Algeria’s Mouhib Khatir, mayor of Zeralda, is known for his strong stance against corruption and for human rights, work that has strengthened his candidacy for “World Mayor,” an annual award made through the City Mayors Foundation. However, Khatir’s anti-corruption stance appears to have landed him in jail in 2011. Other mayors have used their city leadership roles as a stepping-stone toward national political influence. Former Chinese president Jiang Zemin won support for his eventual rise to the top of the Chinese political hierarchy during his time as mayor of Shanghai and later party chief. Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou served as mayor of Taipei. In France, Jacques Chirac and Nicolas S‡rkšzy both were city mayors (Paris and Neuilly-sur-Seine, respectively) before winning the country’s highest office. As sitting mayors, Bloomberg, Johnson and Hashimoto have all been tapped as potential national leaders.

Today’s mayors can boast more than the daily experience of directly managing social, economic and political challenges. For mayors of cities that sociologist Saskia Sassen describes as “command points” in the global economy, their time increasingly involves working with their international counterparts to address global challenges. In a sense, these mayors are global leaders as much as local leaders.

Cities and the New International Order

Urbanization is expected to continue at a rapid pace, with many new cities developing in the next decade alone. Predictions are that by 2030 as many as three out of five people in the world will be urban, and 18 cities will have more than 20 million inhabitants. As globalization intensifies, the capacity of national governments to adequately manage its impact will be further tested, likely making the role of cities even more important. With technology and global media enabling greater direct interaction and the diffusion of ideas to cities around the globe, cities and their leaders can be expected to exercise even more international influence.

So what does the rise of the city signify for the future international order? In her work on “global cities,” sociologist Sassen argues that these strategic centers of production, innovation and often highly mobile people will test the nation-state as an organizing source of cultural identity. At the same time, cities are places where the big patterns of globalization are expressed in concentrated form. As cities grapple with issues ranging from environmental problems to gaping inequalities, many will lack the capacity to meet these challenges, making cities “strategic terrain for a whole series of conflicts,” Sassen says. This carries implications for the role of the nation-state in delivering the kind of security cities will need to thrive a potential test of the political paradigm that structures the Westphalian system.

International relations expert Parag Khanna proffers a more optimistic vision in a contribution to Foreign Policy in its SeptemberÐOctober 2010 issue. Weaker states and a world in which cities play a greater leadership role may well be on the near horizon, but Khanna proposes that the international system that could accompany this scenario is not necessarily a more conflict-ridden one. Rather, inter-city rivalries could give rise to a “cycle of virtuous competition” amid greater global cooperation around world issues through strengthened international organizations and networks.
 


Comments

Somebody Sometimes with visits your website routinely and prescribed it as far as I can tell to peruse also. The method for composing is magnificent furthermore the substance is first rate. A debt of gratitude is in order for that understanding you give the perusers! buy fast YouTube views

dapat membantu seseorang membuat jual besi h beam
pernyataan gaya yang sangat baik.

Wow what a Great Information about World Day its very nice informative post. thanks for the post.
Spider Bites Pictures

I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article homeowners insurance by zip code

I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article best home auto insurance RATINGS

Exceptionally helpful post. This is my first time i visit here. I discovered such a variety of intriguing stuff in your web journal particularly its examination. Truly its incredible article. Keep it up. girlsdoporn

Your articles are more than wow! And also the best way to make understand the things mentioned in it.
cash advance loan lenders

menstrual cup usa

best menstrual cup

menstrual cup dangers

how to choose a menstrual cup

menstrual cup online china

about menstrual cups

guide to menstrual cups

research menstrual cup

buy menstrual cup

Menstrual Cup Canada

Menstrual cup information

Menstrual Cup Buy

https://twitter.com/thelunacup

https://www.facebook.com/Menstrual-Cup-Reviews-Buy-739015572865858/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menstrual_cup

https://twitter.com/menstrualcupfan

Top 10 menstrual cups

http://health.clevelandclinic.org/2015/02/tired-of-tampons-here-are-pros-and-cons-of-menstrual-cups/

http://lunacup.livejournal.com/

https://menstrualcupsreview.wordpress.com/

Menstrual Cup Amazon

http://www.amazon.com/Diva-Cup-Pre-Childbirth/dp/B000FAG6X0

http://www.webmd.com/women/guide/menstrual-cup

http://www.wikihow.com/Buy-a-Menstrual-Cup

Tags related to menstrual cup
how to insert a menstrual cups
menstrual cups comparison chart
are menstrual cups safe
menstrual cups reviews
menstrual cups vs tampons
menstrual cups comparison chart
best menstrual cup
cheap menstrual cup
menstrual cup best brand
softer menstrual cup
icare menstrual cup review
luna cup vs diva cup
diva cup vs lena cup
tampons
menstrual cups comparison
menstrual cups walmart
Menstrual cup - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menstrual_cup
menstrual cup dangers
luna cup
menstrual cup where to buy
menstrual cup reviews
walgreens menstrual cup
menstrual cup comparison
best menstrual cup
diva cup problems

Every day I visit a number of blog sites to see content, however this offers quality based content.
Mark Curry

Wonderful article, thanks for putting this together! This is obviously one great post. Thanks for the valuable information and insights you have so provided here. Roger Denesha is Xara

Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well written article. I will be sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly comeback. England essay

I am certainly making the most of your site. You unquestionably have some extraordinary knowledge and incredible stories. theonlinedogtrainer reviews

I read this article. I think You put a lot of effort to create this article. I appreciate your work. locksmith hallandale, auto

Great post, there are bunch of new information here. I can't believe you've only been doing this for over a year now.Hypnotherapie Berlin

Thanks for taking the time to discuss this, I feel strongly about it and love learning more on this topic.
rapid fat loss program lyle

Really a great addition. I have read this marvelous post. Thanks for sharing information about it. I really like that. Thanks so lot for your convene.
Text The Romance Back Review

Great job accomplished by you here. I can say that this is one of the finest articles I've read. The content here is just absolutely amazing. Hoping to see more stuff like this. order autoblow

Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well written article. I will be sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly comeback.
essay writing help online

Thanks a lot for sharing this amazing information about this topic with us. This certainly has helped me out a lot in writing a paper on this topic. Keep the good work going on, mate. clicker training for dogs

Thanks a lot for sharing this amazing information about this topic with us. This was really helpful for me to complete my project on this topic. I hope you keep this going on. name compatibility

I just found this blog and have high hopes for it to continue. Keep up the great work. its hard to find good ones. I have added to my favorites. Thank You.
Lovetraction

On this page you can read my interests, write something special. youtube marketing

This is such an extraordinary asset, to the point that you are giving and you give it away for nothing. I adore seeing sites that comprehend the benefit of giving a quality asset to free. It is the old what circumvents comes around schedule. Manual Niche Relevant blog comments

Your blogs further more each else volume is so entertaining further serviceable It appoints me befall retreat encore. I will instantly grab your rss feed to stay informed of any updates. the 7 steps to health and the big diabetes lie review

Great post! I am actually getting ready to across this information, is very helpful my friend. Also great blog here with all of the valuable information you have. Keep up the good work you are doing here. testing

I am certain this article has touched all the web visitors; it’s very extremely lovely script.
car insurance in colorado versus utah

It’s really such nice information to get advantage from.
12 week mastery review

The quality of your articles and contents is great.
Moms

Thank you so much you have given the great blogs site by which we can get more advantage.
wwweasyonlineloancom

A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing the information, keep doing awesome... I truly delighted in investigating your site. great asset... home décor

I've proper selected to build a blog, which I hold been deficient to do for a during. Acknowledges for this inform, it's really serviceable! locksmiths

Your blog provided us with valuable information to work with. Each & every tips of your post are awesome. Thanks a lot for sharing. Keep blogging,
products for sale

This is important, though it's necessary to help you head over to it weblink: Escorts en Calama

I might suggest solely beneficial in addition to trusted facts, and so find it: Acompañantes en Antofagasta

Your blog provided us with valuable information to work with. Each & every tips of your post are awesome. Thanks a lot for sharing. Keep blogging.. youtube views|buy youtube subscribers buy youtube subscribers

Golf course critic Sandy Swingsen takes you on a tour of Florida's toughest golf shots. The Panoramic Ocean Vistas of Amelia Island Golf Courses, Jacksonville Golf Course Marsh Lands, Orlando Resort Golf Course Bunkers, Lakes, Long Carries, and other Magic. GolfShotsFlorida.com is your source to scout Florida Golf Courses before you get here. See the Golf Shots, Be the Golf Shots. See the Golf Photos, be the Golf Photos. north hampton golf course

Thank you very much for this great post.
college paper

The data you have posted is extremely helpful. The destinations you have alluded was great. A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing... toys and games

Nicest information!!! I'll be enchanted to greatly help due to what I've learnt from here. mixtape cover maker

Keep doing awesome read few posts on this site and I imagine that your online journal is exceptionally fascinating and has sets of phenomenal data. online shopping singapore

Incredible Information sharing .. I am exceptionally glad to peruse this article .. much obliged for giving us experience info.Fantastic pleasant. I value this post. table de jardin aluminium

Here at this site really the fastidious material collection so that everybody can enjoy a lot.

Mark Curry Macfarlane

Well, I have got the best information from here the site is fully stuffed with the knowledgeable information.

Scope Leads Bonus

Your blogs have allured me a lot. I’ll again visit this great site to get more valuable stuff.
http://therm-o-wall.com

Thank you again for all the knowledge you distribute,Good post. I was very interested in the article, it's quite inspiring I should admit. I like visiting you site since I always come across interesting articles like this one.Great Job, I greatly appreciate that.Do Keep sharing! Regards, essayhave review

This is one of the most important blogs that I have seen, keep it up!
liability coverage car insurance

Great post. and great website. Thanks for the information!
The Penguin method Review

For this web site, you will see our account, remember to go through this info. What is Language of Desire?

Thank you very much for the sharing! COOL..
ccna class in pune

This short article posted only at the web site is truly good.
instant payday loans online