Share |

Smart-City Technology

  • warning: Creating default object from empty value in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/openpublish_core/theme_helpers/node-article.tpl.inc on line 48.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 879.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field_user::init() should be compatible with views_handler_field::init(&$view, $options) in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/modules/user/views_handler_field_user.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::init() should be compatible with views_handler::init(&$view, $options) in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc on line 0.

In the smart city, technology is not independent in its form or application from the influence of other inputs. It needs to be designed as a complement to human and social capital, evolving in response to the social and economic goals of the urban community or the changing strategies for achieving those goals. In Europe, where the concept is somewhat further developed than in the United States, it has been suggested that the components of a smart city are other “smarts”: economy, mobility, environment, people and governance. In each aspect, ICT can play a role, but it is only part of the story.

How strongly a technology influences the organization of a society or an economy has long been a subject of debate and discussion, with views ranging from a belief in “technological determinism”—that developments in technology define the path of economic, social and even cultural development—to assertions that new technologies most often lead to unintended, unexpected and usually unwanted consequences. In the middle: a belief in “soft determinism,” that new technologies do indeed “push” societies in certain directions, but the applications can be guided by societal needs, the “pull” factors that reflect the other assets and goals of a society.

Information and communication technology provides an example. Especially in its networking capability, ICT has made it possible to develop virtual communities with shared interests, multinational corporations that coordinate activities across the world in real time and are not locked into one political entity, telecommuting for individuals that eases the need to be close to one’s place of employment, global trade opportunities for the smallest as well as the largest businesses, and a shift of de facto power from governments to nongovernmental organizations. This trend has led many to assume that the most prevalent impact of ICT has been to diminish the importance of geography per se. Yet not only have communities persisted in the face of this burgeoning technology, they have grown—and nowhere more so than among the most technically sophisticated communities: Silicon Valley in the San Francisco Bay area, Boston’s Route 128, the Research Triangle in North Carolina, Sophia Antipolis in France, and the cities of Bangalore and Singapore. Technology does not trump physical community; it does not substitute for social capital, good governance or environmental health. In fact, as it turns out, ICT, properly employed, can enhance physical community and hence its role in creating smart cities.

ICT as Problem-Solver

Information and communication technology is not a single technology; it is a group of technologies that perform four kinds of functions. First, there are devices and instruments that gather information—measure things, detect signals, take pictures, record events. These are cameras, sensors and other detectors. The information they gather, often in overwhelming amounts, is communicated to other devices that can store it, sort it and analyze it—the second set of functions. These are the chips and the software at the heart of computers, smartphones, identity recognition technology, automobile safety systems and much more. This processed information can trigger actions, for example, automatically changing the sources and routings in an electrical power network or controlling the traffic signals on highway on-ramps. It can also be the basis of advice promulgated widely—to drivers on the road, to police or fire departments, to health agencies or environmental protection agencies. These technologies of communication, wired or wireless, constitute the third set of functions.

Last, there is the extraordinary development of network technology: the ability to connect and integrate all of these systems for gathering, processing and using information so that all of the devices and their users are effectively linked to each other, able to pass information from one to another (or one to many others) in any direction, with each user a source of information (or the initiator of action) as well as a recipient. Moreover, because digital networks are designed to do no more than connect machines and devices, regardless of what those machines and devices do or how they do it—which is referred to as an “end-to-end” system—the end-users are free to design the applications of ICT, rather than any central authority. The possibilities for innovation are almost endless, limited only by the imagination of the users or, one hopes, the needs of society.

In the case of cities, the societal pull comes from:

  • The need to make stable, affordable power available
  • The challenge of providing efficient transportation as population increases and cities spread
  • The growing concern for environmental protection
  • The demand for enhancement of government services and democratic governance
  • The drive for effectiveness of education
  • The quality of daily life

The challenge to smart cities is to find ways to use ICT technologies—signal collection, information processing, and command and control—to respond to these pulls.Ê

Thus, for example, smart power grids cannot only balance overall supply and demand in real time but also can offer and meter differential pricing schemes to consumers who, in turn, can alter their usage patterns minute-to-minute or hour-to-hour to minimize their own costs. The smart grids also are able to incorporate distributed power generation capacity (customers who generate as well as consume energy) into their computer programs, bringing distributed sources online as needed in peak periods and thus reducing the high capital costs of building standby generators to serve peak capacity needs.

In transportation, gathering information and processing it in real time means not only that impending traffic tie-ups can be anticipated and communicated to drivers on the highway, but also that drivers can be guided to the best alternative routes to avoid the jam.

Smartphones can be used for banking, for virtual shopping while waiting for a bus or train, for paying in a supermarket and for voting. Listservs can function as local community bulletin boards, sharing information on reliable businesses and services, neighborhood security issues, or news. Identification cards can contain medical information easily read by rapid responders. Public wide-area networks can make every park and public square a public library. And when taken together, these very few examples and many not mentioned create a smart city.

Anticipating Ripple Effects

As with all new technology developments, ICT creates ripple effects. The techno-skeptics argue that these tend to be unanticipated and, most often, negative effects. These effects need not be unanticipated if policymakers and technology developers together look for and address them. Generally they fall into three categories: induced changes in behavior that have wide-reaching effects beyond the primary target; technical and policy changes that shift power and impose costs differentially on various groups; and technologies whose implementation affects or requires a modification of historical values. Some examples:

  • Online shopping can change the nature of neighborhoods, displacing convenience stores and cutting back on face-to-face contact between neighbors, much as online bookstores have displaced independent booksellers. Shopping as a social experience can disappear and small businesses along with it. Are there ways of avoiding that outcome (for example, subcontracting order fulfillment to local businesses)?
  • Complex electric-power pricing structures can give significant advantages to major users who can more easily determine optimal strategies for minimizing their power costs, while individuals lacking sophisticated tools or flexibility actually find themselves facing higher electricity bills.
  • Many of the most powerful ICTs depend on gathering information about people in the network—the routes their automobiles are taking, credit information, preferences, medical information—leading to a trade-off between a loss of privacy and a gain of private convenience, security or public good. Thus, advances in ICT are forcing society to examine the meaning of privacy, the means for achieving it, and the balance between privacy rights and the obligations of the social contract.
  • Freedom of information is clearly enhanced by new ICT developments. This has led, and continues to lead, to a shift from representative to direct democracy and increasing pressure for openness in government deliberations. It is not an unambiguously positive development in that it diminishes the role of expertise and delegated authority (thus the move toward referenda to decide issues) and constraints on the political negotiating process (think of WikiLeaks). Thus, as in the case of privacy, ICT should stimulate a public discussion of the appropriate balance between representative and popular governance, and any necessary limits on freedom of information.

The notion of smart cities epitomizes the role that new technologies can play in coping with the challenges of urbanization while meeting the social, economic and political goals of a society. But it also suggests the usefulness of technology depends on its integration with other forms of capital, and implementation must proceed with sensitivity to its limitations and broad effects. In a sense, the smart city concept requires and encourages a clarification of a society’s core values—not only how we want a city to function efficiently, be economically competitive and provide a comfortable place to live, but also whether the city we design is a proper expression of the society’s deepest values.


Comments

You've done a fascinating job here. The information that I got from this post was really good and it helped me to complete my project. I just hope that you'll continue to do more jobs like this. BPR

The quality of your articles and contents is great.
Moms

Wonderful content is essential pertaining to viewers to have fascinated internet pertaining to really good content, find some additional the following from
coffee tables

Thank you so much you have given the great blogs site by which we can get more advantage.
easy paypay loans

Awesome blog. I enjoyed reading your articles. This is truly a great read for me. I have bookmarked it and I am looking forward to reading new articles. Keep up the good work! singapore to jb taxi

Incredible site! Do you have any tips and indications for trying essayists? I"m wanting to begin my own site soon however I"m somewhat lost on everything. Would you propose beginning with a free stage like WordPress or go for a paid choice? There are such a variety of choices out there that I"m totally overpowered .. Any recommendations? Much obliged! make money online in nigeria

Very interesting to read this article.I would like to thank you for the efforts you had made for writing this awesome article
Sweden Hosting

That's a nice place of you; we have been polishing off there.
dui lawyers

Tim Duncan their greatest franchise player was George Gervin, the patron saint of glorious frustration. They were the team that would never put it together, but that was their allure.
powerlifting knee wraps

Hey to everyone, it’s my first visit of the blog site; this blog includes awesome and actually best info for the visitors. psicologo df
limo from jfk to ct

These are actually wonderful some ideas in the blog. You have touched good quality points here. In whatever way continue writing.
SwedenColocation hosting

Much obliged such a great amount for this data. I need to tell you I agree on a few of the focuses you make here and others may require some further audit, however I can see your perspective.

recovery companion london

A simple bookmarking tool that makes it easy to save, organize and share your favorite web pages. Access your bookmarks from any computer, phone or tablet. Listango works on all modern web browsers… man united stream

Incredible posting this is from you. I am really and truly thrilled to read this marvelous post. You've really impressed me today. I hope you'll continue to do so!
Grow Magic Mushrooms

Such sites are important because they provide a large dose of useful information ...
sandals with toe loop

The Tinnitus Miracle program was designed for individuals suffering from loud, persistent, and frustrating ringing in their ears. Obviously, this condition is known as tinnitus.what can you take for ringing ears

Someone Sometimes with visits your blog regularly and recommended it in my experience to read as well. The way of writing is excellent and also the content is top-notch. Thanks for that insight you provide the readers!
meineStadt

Thanks for a wonderful share. Your article has importaciones your hard work and experience you have got in This field. Brilliant reading .I love it.
villaolja

Great tips and very easy to understand. This will definitely be very useful for me when I get a chance to start my blog.
Anytime Realty

Each day is long, but I am proud to serve my community and the children of Somalia. I don’t want to see another child paralyzed by polio
scraping tools

I would love to stop by. But, I think it might have to wait until this summer. I did not know that Serlkay had ever expanded its size. I must say that a succesful family owned business in this day and age is a very refreshing sight! As well as this is a very refreshing site!
Oferta

Whether you want to book a Begumpet Hyderabad Escort for several weeks in advance or you have the need for that special someone in just a few hours, we are ready to help you find your perfect match.
Oferta

Some of you have also asked me about my thoughts on 3 Week Diettestimonials, and personally I never try to let them influence me one way or another. It's kind of a love/hate
us bank login page

Quantum Vision System – an eBook promising to naturally restore your eyesight. But are these truthful promises, or is the author looking to pull the wool over your eyes for a quick buck.www.strikingly.com/

I definitely enjoying every little bit of it. It is a great website and nice share. I want to thank you. Good job! agen bola terpercaya

There are so many that you just want to have them all in the books to make it where you can read about them when ever you want.
Oferta

A simple bookmarking tool that makes it easy to save, organize and share your favorite web pages. Access your bookmarks from any computer, phone or tablet. Listango works on all modern web browsers…
Oferta

Each one is here to share his or her intriguing data, observe like additional in
Oferta

DECON Designs The registered trade mark, wholly owned by Kong Posh Industries (M) Sdn. Bhd. Decon designs are the outdoor furniture, bistro furniture and restaurant furniture supplier for almost two decades.
Oferta

Mmm.. good to be here in your article or post, whatever, I think I should also work hard for my own website like I see some good and updated working in your site.
Oferta

Great post full of useful tips! My site is fairly new and I am also having a hard time getting my readers to leave comments. Analytics shows they are coming to the site but I have a feeling “nobody wants to be first”.
New York Mitsubishi no credit

Be sure to keep going the terrific job together with That i will enjoy even more to your impressive blog articles.
New York Cars no credit

Thanks a lot for generating this fantastic blog post ! This short blog post offers all the details I required about this subject. Keep this fantastic work going on. Looking forward to more of your blog posts.
Syracuse Chrysler near me

I am no longer sure the place you're getting your info, but great topic. I needs to spend a while studying much more or understanding more. Thanks for wonderful info I was on the lookout for this info for my mission.
Non-GMO heirloom seeds

I am not sure where you're getting your information, but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more. Thanks for excellent information I was looking for this information for my mission.
anxiety

I am certain this article has touched all the web visitors; it’s very extremely lovely script.
this

You're in point of fact a just right webmaster. The website loading speed is amazing. It kind of feels that you're doing any distinctive trick. Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. you have done a fantastic activity on this subject!
social anxiety

am continually searching for some free stuffs over the web. there are likewise a few organizations which gives free examples.
Floor Restoration Birmingham

Thanks a lot very much for the high quality and results-oriented help. I won’t think twice to endorse your blog post to anybody who wants and needs support about this area.
Floor Restoration Hull

Your blogs further more each else volume is so entertaining further serviceable It appoints me befall retreat encore. I will instantly grab your rss feed to stay informed of any updates.
dse training courses

I’m happy I located this blog! From time to time, students want to cognitive the keys of productive literary essays composing. Your first-class knowledge about this good post can become a proper basis for such people.

Burglar Alarm Installers Leeds

I did enjoy reading articles posted on this site. They are impressive and has a lot of useful information.
anxiety

We must be very careful to make our living room very attractive. It is the area that most of the visitors see. So it should be very attractive. Very happy to know more about the living room designs and how to make it attractive.
birthday party singapore

Many thanks for the exciting blog posting! Simply put your blog post to my favorite blog list and will look forward for additional updates. Simply wanted to write down a word in order to say thanks to you for those wonderful tips.
slim minimalist wallet

I think this is an informative post and it is very useful and knowledgeable. therefore, I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article.
Easy sketch Pro software download

I think I should also work hard for my own website like I see some good and updated working in your site... sex cam

That's what makes you the best. You should keep publishing more articles and you will Such Become One of the best writers ever
download lagu gratis

A winder for an automatic watch is sometimes known as a watch winder box and is in fact itself a watch which is designed to maintain the movement of an automatic watch while it is being stored.

Wonderful article. thanks for putting this together! This is obviously one great post. Thanks for the valuable information and insights you have so provided here.
online writing

Wonderful article, thanks for putting this together! This is obviously one great post. Thanks for the valuable information and insights you have so provided here. pembesar penis murah