Share |

Smart-City Technology

  • warning: Creating default object from empty value in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/openpublish_core/theme_helpers/node-article.tpl.inc on line 48.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 879.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field_user::init() should be compatible with views_handler_field::init(&$view, $options) in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/modules/user/views_handler_field_user.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::init() should be compatible with views_handler::init(&$view, $options) in /home6/saismedi/public_html/saisphere/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc on line 0.

In the smart city, technology is not independent in its form or application from the influence of other inputs. It needs to be designed as a complement to human and social capital, evolving in response to the social and economic goals of the urban community or the changing strategies for achieving those goals. In Europe, where the concept is somewhat further developed than in the United States, it has been suggested that the components of a smart city are other “smarts”: economy, mobility, environment, people and governance. In each aspect, ICT can play a role, but it is only part of the story.

How strongly a technology influences the organization of a society or an economy has long been a subject of debate and discussion, with views ranging from a belief in “technological determinism”—that developments in technology define the path of economic, social and even cultural development—to assertions that new technologies most often lead to unintended, unexpected and usually unwanted consequences. In the middle: a belief in “soft determinism,” that new technologies do indeed “push” societies in certain directions, but the applications can be guided by societal needs, the “pull” factors that reflect the other assets and goals of a society.

Information and communication technology provides an example. Especially in its networking capability, ICT has made it possible to develop virtual communities with shared interests, multinational corporations that coordinate activities across the world in real time and are not locked into one political entity, telecommuting for individuals that eases the need to be close to one’s place of employment, global trade opportunities for the smallest as well as the largest businesses, and a shift of de facto power from governments to nongovernmental organizations. This trend has led many to assume that the most prevalent impact of ICT has been to diminish the importance of geography per se. Yet not only have communities persisted in the face of this burgeoning technology, they have grown—and nowhere more so than among the most technically sophisticated communities: Silicon Valley in the San Francisco Bay area, Boston’s Route 128, the Research Triangle in North Carolina, Sophia Antipolis in France, and the cities of Bangalore and Singapore. Technology does not trump physical community; it does not substitute for social capital, good governance or environmental health. In fact, as it turns out, ICT, properly employed, can enhance physical community and hence its role in creating smart cities.

ICT as Problem-Solver

Information and communication technology is not a single technology; it is a group of technologies that perform four kinds of functions. First, there are devices and instruments that gather information—measure things, detect signals, take pictures, record events. These are cameras, sensors and other detectors. The information they gather, often in overwhelming amounts, is communicated to other devices that can store it, sort it and analyze it—the second set of functions. These are the chips and the software at the heart of computers, smartphones, identity recognition technology, automobile safety systems and much more. This processed information can trigger actions, for example, automatically changing the sources and routings in an electrical power network or controlling the traffic signals on highway on-ramps. It can also be the basis of advice promulgated widely—to drivers on the road, to police or fire departments, to health agencies or environmental protection agencies. These technologies of communication, wired or wireless, constitute the third set of functions.

Last, there is the extraordinary development of network technology: the ability to connect and integrate all of these systems for gathering, processing and using information so that all of the devices and their users are effectively linked to each other, able to pass information from one to another (or one to many others) in any direction, with each user a source of information (or the initiator of action) as well as a recipient. Moreover, because digital networks are designed to do no more than connect machines and devices, regardless of what those machines and devices do or how they do it—which is referred to as an “end-to-end” system—the end-users are free to design the applications of ICT, rather than any central authority. The possibilities for innovation are almost endless, limited only by the imagination of the users or, one hopes, the needs of society.

In the case of cities, the societal pull comes from:

  • The need to make stable, affordable power available
  • The challenge of providing efficient transportation as population increases and cities spread
  • The growing concern for environmental protection
  • The demand for enhancement of government services and democratic governance
  • The drive for effectiveness of education
  • The quality of daily life

The challenge to smart cities is to find ways to use ICT technologies—signal collection, information processing, and command and control—to respond to these pulls.Ê

Thus, for example, smart power grids cannot only balance overall supply and demand in real time but also can offer and meter differential pricing schemes to consumers who, in turn, can alter their usage patterns minute-to-minute or hour-to-hour to minimize their own costs. The smart grids also are able to incorporate distributed power generation capacity (customers who generate as well as consume energy) into their computer programs, bringing distributed sources online as needed in peak periods and thus reducing the high capital costs of building standby generators to serve peak capacity needs.

In transportation, gathering information and processing it in real time means not only that impending traffic tie-ups can be anticipated and communicated to drivers on the highway, but also that drivers can be guided to the best alternative routes to avoid the jam.

Smartphones can be used for banking, for virtual shopping while waiting for a bus or train, for paying in a supermarket and for voting. Listservs can function as local community bulletin boards, sharing information on reliable businesses and services, neighborhood security issues, or news. Identification cards can contain medical information easily read by rapid responders. Public wide-area networks can make every park and public square a public library. And when taken together, these very few examples and many not mentioned create a smart city.

Anticipating Ripple Effects

As with all new technology developments, ICT creates ripple effects. The techno-skeptics argue that these tend to be unanticipated and, most often, negative effects. These effects need not be unanticipated if policymakers and technology developers together look for and address them. Generally they fall into three categories: induced changes in behavior that have wide-reaching effects beyond the primary target; technical and policy changes that shift power and impose costs differentially on various groups; and technologies whose implementation affects or requires a modification of historical values. Some examples:

  • Online shopping can change the nature of neighborhoods, displacing convenience stores and cutting back on face-to-face contact between neighbors, much as online bookstores have displaced independent booksellers. Shopping as a social experience can disappear and small businesses along with it. Are there ways of avoiding that outcome (for example, subcontracting order fulfillment to local businesses)?
  • Complex electric-power pricing structures can give significant advantages to major users who can more easily determine optimal strategies for minimizing their power costs, while individuals lacking sophisticated tools or flexibility actually find themselves facing higher electricity bills.
  • Many of the most powerful ICTs depend on gathering information about people in the network—the routes their automobiles are taking, credit information, preferences, medical information—leading to a trade-off between a loss of privacy and a gain of private convenience, security or public good. Thus, advances in ICT are forcing society to examine the meaning of privacy, the means for achieving it, and the balance between privacy rights and the obligations of the social contract.
  • Freedom of information is clearly enhanced by new ICT developments. This has led, and continues to lead, to a shift from representative to direct democracy and increasing pressure for openness in government deliberations. It is not an unambiguously positive development in that it diminishes the role of expertise and delegated authority (thus the move toward referenda to decide issues) and constraints on the political negotiating process (think of WikiLeaks). Thus, as in the case of privacy, ICT should stimulate a public discussion of the appropriate balance between representative and popular governance, and any necessary limits on freedom of information.

The notion of smart cities epitomizes the role that new technologies can play in coping with the challenges of urbanization while meeting the social, economic and political goals of a society. But it also suggests the usefulness of technology depends on its integration with other forms of capital, and implementation must proceed with sensitivity to its limitations and broad effects. In a sense, the smart city concept requires and encourages a clarification of a society’s core values—not only how we want a city to function efficiently, be economically competitive and provide a comfortable place to live, but also whether the city we design is a proper expression of the society’s deepest values.


Comments

Thanks a lot for enjoying this beauty article with me. I am appreciating it very much! Looking forward to another great article. Good luck to the author!
Can-Am Spyder Dealer

Will probably be to the a single provide, fortify Togo, this type of minimal work out in search of hearing and as well, next, to provide a new well-timed chance to reveal routines and as well internet masters home pooling regarding possessions and as well records.
herpes dating sites

This is my first time i visit here and I found so many interesting stuff in your blog especially it's discussion. thank you.
buenos aires restaurant maidstone

I really appreciate this wonderful post that you have provided for us. I assure this would be beneficial for most of the people.
ako sa zbavit stresu

I was getting bore since morning but as soon as I got this link & reached at this blog, I turned into fresh and also joyful too.
Curry Macfarlane

Very easily, the content is really the very best subject about this registry associated concern.
Gene Design

Whether somebody pursuit of his vital thing, hence he or she desires to be accessible that at length, hence that thing is maintained over here.
Shailendra Singh

It's not my very first time to visit this blog; I’m visiting this daily and acquire superb info from here day by day.

payday loan source

A good blog always comes-up with new and exciting information and while reading I have feel that this blog is really have all those quality that qualify a blog to be a one
style

I discovered your site ideal for me. It consists of wonderful and useful posts. I've read many of them and also got so much from them. In my experience, you do the truly amazing.Truly i'm impressed out of this publish
ΑΥΤΟΚΟΛΛΗΤΑ LAPTOP

Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well written article. I will be sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly comeback.
more detailed info

Much obliged to you so much Love your online journal..
probate clearance Kent

You're so cool! I don't think I've read anything like this before. So good to find somebody with some original thoughts on this subject. Thanks for starting this up.
virgin hair wholesale suppliers

I also like the idea of helping out those in need in your own home treat. mens silver chains I really appreciate your many frugal ideas- I’m not in a place to spend a lot of money but I’m still wholeheartedly participating. Thank you!

Here at this site really the fastidious material collection so that everybody can enjoy a lot.
psicologos df

I appreciate what you have done here. I like the part where you say you are doing this to give back yet I would expect by every one of the remarks this is working for you too.
beginners yoga

This is such an awesome asset, to the point that you are giving and you give it away for nothing. I adore seeing sites that comprehend the benefit of giving a quality asset to free. It is the old what circumvents comes around schedule.
projekty domów z poddaszem

I have been intelligent for hours and I haven't gone through such awesome stuff.
Best dentist Missouri city TX

I have enjoyed this great information so much. This was really very interesting and helpful to read. I cant wait to read more from this site.
Bexar County Traffic Ticket

Admire it regarding positioning the comely amuse…I was summary set regarding a manifold regular this…I identified that can peaceful good, employing likelihood, you would perhaps store positioning a immense sum of blogs.
Posts Lights Outdoor

debt settlement The purpose is to get the ball to one end of the field, and to celebrate by doing a little dance. To sound in the know during a football game loudly ask, “Whose down? Whose down?” over and over again
Fort Worth Criminal Lawyers

Just saying thanks wouldn’t just be enough, for the fantastic fluency in your writing.
afordable whole life life insurance

Very interesting to read, I would like to thank you for the efforts you had made for writing this awesome article.
LOCAL INTERNET MARKETING HOUSTON

I wish to show thanks to you just for bailing me out of this particular trouble.As a result of checking through the the net and meeting techniques that were not productive, I was thinking my life was done.
how to get rid of cellulite

I think this is one of the most significant information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But should remark on some general things.Milton barbarosh

I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have enjoyed reading.
Best inflatable kayak reviews

I see the greatest contents on your blog and I extremely love reading them.
liability only

Your blog provided us with valuable information to work with. Each & every tips of your post are awesome. Thanks a lot for sharing. Keep blogging.
cheap nhl jerseys

Hey, great blog, but I don’t understand how to add your site in my rss reader. Can you Help me please? Nichole Haynes

Your blog provided us with valuable information to work with. Each & every tips of your post are awesome. Thanks a lot for sharing. Keep blogging..
quiz game

Please also seek advice from my site =). We could have a hyperlink change contract between us!buy more instagram followers.net

Thank you a bunch for sharing this with all of us you actually realize what you are talking about! Bookmarked. instabuylikesgram.com

Such a very useful article. Very interesting to read this article.I would like to thank you for the efforts you had made for writing this awesome article.
Houston Seo

This is a truly good site post. Not too many people would actually, the way you just did. game sale

V tejto recenzii vám predstavíme Zerex - výživový doplnok na skvalitnenie sexuálneho života. Zerex patrí medzi Top výrobky a preto u nás získal...
Imarku Professional 8 Inch Chef’s Knife

I might want to thank you for the endeavors you have made in composing this article. I am trusting the same best work from you later on too..
San Antonio CDL Best Lawyer

Awesome blog. I enjoyed reading your articles. This is truly a great read for me. I have bookmarked it and I am looking forward to reading new articles. Keep up the good work
Commercial Post Lights

Merely a smiling visitant here to share the love (:, btw outstanding style.
6 seater taxi singapore

Extraordinary tips and straightforward.This is an incredible rousing article.
Dentist in Missouri City

Hi there! Nice stuff. do keep me posted when you post again something like this!
DWI Lawyer Ft Worth

I would never want to miss out any opportunity to read out your contents.
Bedford Traffic Ticket Attorney

First You got a great blog .I will be interested in more similar topics. i see you got really very useful topics.
Merchant Sodexo

Nice to be visiting your blog again, it has been months for me. Well this article that i’ve been waited for so long. I need this article to complete my assignment in the college, and it has same topic with your article. Thanks, great share.
Fitness

I have been searching out for this similar kind of post for past a week and hardly came across this.... personal injury attorney stone mountain ga

All the contents you mentioned in post is too good and can be very useful. I will keep it in mind, thanks for sharing the information keep updating, looking forward for more posts
trophies

Hi there! Nice stuff. do keep me posted when you post again something like this!
star wars galaxy of heroes cheats

wow, great, I was wondering how to cure acne naturally. and found your site by google, learned a lot, now i’m a bit clear. I’ve bookmark your site and also add rss. cheap seo services

I think this is an informative post and it is very useful and knowledgeable. therefore. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article
Email Marketing Database of Dubai

Our blog provided us with valuable information to work with... life coach atlanta

We know how to drive organic for your valuable websites. Once you get our service we hope you will be able to increase your sell.....
hyperhidrosis